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A Peer-Reviewed Journal About


↑ Theme for this particular issue

Karen Eliot
Monty Cantsin
Luther Blissett
Sandy Larson
Dale Nixon

Christian Ulrik Andersen
& Geoff Cox (Eds.)

↑ List of authors and editors, separated by <br> tags

Volume 12, Issue 1, 2023
ISSN 2245-7755

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↑ This Table of Contents is made manually, with links to titles of each article, followed by a pipe symbol (|) and the corresponding linked text. The reason for this is that MediaWiki automatically makes IDs for each heading1 given. But each article actually has two heading1, the title and the subtitle. In the source of the Table of Contents above, in order to hyperlink to the title on the page it appears from, the ID must be given with a hash (#). If there are any spaces in the words title, they must be replaced by underscores (_). The title must be separated from the subtitle with a space ( ), and then any spaces in the subtitle should also be replaced by underscores. In each article, there is also a specific way of linking this (please see Title: Subtitle of each article for reference).

A Peer-Reviewed Journal About_
ISSN: 2245-7755

Editors: Christian Ulrik Andersen and Geoff Cox
Published by: Digital Aesthetics Research Centre, Aarhus University
Design: Manetta Berends and Simon Browne (CC)
Fonts: Happy Times at the IKOB by Lucas Le Bihan, AllCon by Simon Browne
CC license: ‘Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike’


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Christian Ulrik Andersen
& Geoff Cox


Editorial: Subtitle

The three characteristics of minor tech are the deterritorialization of technology, the connection of the individual to a political immediacy, and the collective arrangement of its operations. Which amounts to this: that “minor” no longer characterises certain technologies, but describes the revolutionary conditions of any technology within what we call big (or ubiquitous). –– Deleuze and Guattari, Kafka: Toward a Minor LiteratureTech (18)

This journal issue addresses what we are calling "minor tech" making reference to Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's essay "Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature" (written in 1975). They propose the concept of minor literature as opposed to great or established literature — the use of a major language that subverts it from within. "Becoming-minitorian" in this sense — to use a related concept from A Thousand Plateaus — involves the recognition of particular instances of power and the ability of the repressed minority to gain some degree of autonomy of expression. "Expression must break forms, encourage ruptures and new sproutings", as Deleuze and Guattari put it (28).

A characteristic of minor technologies is that everything in them is politics.

For our purpose, this notion of the minor is a relative position to major (or big) tech. This also partly invokes the issue of scale, the theme of the 2023 edition of transmediale festival. In the call, the organizers state that the festival is an exploration of “how technological scale sets conditions for relations, feelings, democratic processes, and infrastructures.” (https://2023.transmediale.de/). The importance of scale becomes apparent in the massification of images and texts on the internet, and the application of various scalar machine techniques that try to make things comprehensible for human and non-human readers alike; big computing begets big data. However, “we have a problem with scale”, as Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing puts it (37), in its connection to modernist master narratives that organise life on an increasingly globalised scale (the 'bigness' of capitalism). Alternatively, she writes, we need to “notice” the small details and not assume that these need to be scaled up to be effective, as is the orthodoxy of research. In technical fields, not least machine learning, this problem with scale has severe consequences, with ensuing discrimination and environmental damage.

A minor technology is that which a minority constructs within the grammar of technology.

Small tech on the other hand operates at human scale (more peer to peer than server-client) and "stutters and stammers the major" (to use the words of Deleuze and Guattari once more). More pragmatically, as artist-researcher Marloes de Valk puts it in the Damaged Earth Catalog: “Small technology, smallnet and smolnet are associated with communities using alternative network infrastructures, delinking from the commercial Internet.” Further issues that arise from scale question the paradigms of 'big computing'; for instance, the dynamics between big data and small technology, attentive to what Cathy Park Hong calls “minor feelings” (that derive from racial and economic discrimination in society); how to bring together new material and minoritarian cultural assemblages between humans and nonhumans, ecology, and technological infrastructure and systems; or, how this relates to minor practices and collective action. Although, ultimately, notions of big or small become less important, and everything is to be considered political (or micropolitical) if we follow our conceptual trajectory.

As such, this publication sets out to question some of the major ideals of technology and its problems of bigness, extending it to follow the three main characteristics identified in Deleuze and Guattari's essay, namely deterritorialization, political immediacy, and collective value. We would argue that these remain pertinent concepts: as a means to deterritorialize from repressive conceptual, social, affective, linguistic and technical regimes, and transform the conditions through which technology can become a "collective machine of expression" (Deleuze and Guattari 18).

A characteristic of a minor technology is that in it everything takes on a collective value.

Figure 1: Workshop at King's College, January 2023. Photo by Magda Tyzlik-Carver.

Following a process of open exchanges online and a three-day in-person research workshop in London, at London South Bank University and King's College London, this edition of APRJA brings together researchers who think through the potentials of 'the minor', and what we are referring to as minor (or minority) tech. As stated, this is not a problem of scale alone (although many of the contributions take this approach) but of politics – how minorities struggle for autonomy of expression. Together, authors address minor tech through its relation to a range of pressing concerns, exploring: racism in predictive policing technology; QAnon as an assemblage of ‘minor techs’; speculative practices of 'worlding'; parallels between computing and the craft of weaving; artistic tactics in opposition to large-scale digital platforms; attempts to decentre Western epistemologies through spirit tactics and (techno)magic; parallels between planetary-scale computation and a philosophy of mind; problems associated with generative large language models; inflated claims of democratizing machine learning; processes of optimisation and our changing experience of time; connections between DAOs, countercultural blockchain and decoloniality; user subjectivity in Mastodon and the Trans*Feminist Servers project; and the final word is with Trans*Feminist Servers whose practice exemplifies the collective value of minor tech.

A minor technology is an intensive utilisation of technology — it utilises the inner tensions of technology.

Figure 2: Design process of the earlier print publication A Peer-Reviewed Newspaper About Minor Tech. Screenshot by Manetta Berends.

This publication (APRJA) further develops short articles that were first written during the workshop at speed, published as a newspaper and distributed at transmediale (the PDF can be downloaded from here). As well as exploring our shared interest and understanding of minor tech, our approach has been to implement these principles in practice. Consequently the publication has been produced using wiki-to-print tools, based on MediaWiki software, Paged Media CSS techniques and the JavaScript library Paged.js, which renders the PDF. In other words, no Adobe products have been used. As such the divisions of labour between writers, editors, designers, software developers have been brought closer together in ways that challenge some of the normative paradigms of research process and publication, in keeping with the applied ethics of minor tech.

— Aarhus/London, June 2023


Thanks to all contributors and initial workshop participants, including Roel Roscam Abbing, Mateus Domingos, Edoardo Lomi & Macon Holt, Anna Mladentseva, marthe van dessel (alias: ooooo), mika motskobili (alias: vo ezn), ai carmela netîrk, and to Manetta Berends and Simon Browne (Varia) for their design work and the development of the wiki-to-print platform. Additional thanks to Marloes de Valk, Elena Marchevska, Tung-Hui Hu, who contributed to the events in London, and Daniel Chávez Heras, Gabriel Menotti, Søren Pold, Winnie Soon, and Magda Tyzlik-Carver who supported the workshop as respondents, and finally to the anonymous peer reviewers who helped to sharpen the essays. The workshop and publication were supported by CSNI (London South Bank University), SHAPE Digital Citizenship (Aarhus University), and Graduate School of Arts (Aarhus University).

Works cited:

Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature [1975], Translated by Dana Polan. University of Minnesota Press, 1986.

———. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Brian Massumi. University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

Hong, Cathy Park. Minor Feelings: An Asian American Reckoning. One World, 2020.

Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins. Princeton University Press, 2015.

de Valk, Marloes. Damaged Earth Catalogue, 2022, https://damaged.bleu255.com/Small_Technology/. Accessed 22 Jan, 2023.

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Manetta Berends, Simon Browne

About wiki-to-print

This journal is made with wiki-to-print, a collective publishing environment based on MediaWiki software[1], Paged Media CSS[2] techniques and the JavaScript library Paged.js[3], which renders a preview of the PDF in the browser. Using wiki-to-print allows us to work shoulder-to-shoulder as collaborative writers, editors, designers, developers, in a non-linear publishing workflow where design and content unfolds at the same time, allowing the one to shape the other.

Following the idea of "boilerplate code" which is written to be reused, we like to think of wiki-to-print as a boilerplate as well, instead of thinking of it as a product, platform or tool. The code that is running in the background is a version of previous wiki-printing instances, including:

  • the work on the Diversions[4] publications by Constant[5] and OSP[6]
  • the book Volumetric Regimes[7] by Possible Bodies[8] and Manetta Berends[9]
  • TITiPI's[10] wiki-to-pdf environments[11] by Martino Morandi
  • Hackers and Designers'[12] version wiki2print[13] that was produced for the book Making Matters[14]

So, wiki-to-print/wiki-to-pdf/wiki2print is not standalone, but part of a continuum of projects that see software as something to learn from, adapt, transform and change. The code that is used for making this journal is released as yet another version of this network of connected practices[15].

This wiki-to-print is hosted at CC[16] (creative crowds). While moving from cloud to crowds, CC is a thinking device for us how to hand over ways of working and share a space for publishing experiments with others.


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Karen Eliot ← Article author. Formatted as bold type in wikitext, so that it can be rendered in the PDF Table of Contents as an element belonging to this article, rather than as a new article

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Fusce tristique erat a consequat imperdiet. Integer mattis mattis massa, ut tempus diam sollicitudin eget. In ex quam, vulputate ac elementum et, mattis eget velit. Morbi tincidunt commodo ex ac vehicula. Vivamus quam odio, elementum sed eros nec, condimentum scelerisque felis. Fusce ultrices, velit vel sodales consequat, turpis risus convallis nisl, vel mattis est nibh sed felis. Mauris feugiat vestibulum condimentum. Vestibulum non tortor ut felis consectetur consectetur vitae vitae elit. Donec id augue nec quam lobortis tempus. Vivamus quis urna nec tellus ornare cursus. Praesent faucibus commodo turpis, eget pellentesque purus tempus et.

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Pellentesque nibh dolor, egestas sit amet mollis nec, tristique vel enim. Vivamus mauris libero, posuere vel nulla at, ullamcorper lacinia leo. Etiam dui lacus, ultrices eu sapien ut, consequat vulputate felis. Donec volutpat urna sollicitudin, feugiat nisi sed, efficitur nunc. Nulla posuere elit ac euismod gravida. Nam non sem id ligula hendrerit malesuada ut nec ante. In in tellus non dui gravida fringilla. Sed molestie libero et orci consectetur accumsan. Proin aliquam lectus ut nunc venenatis, a varius lacus pulvinar.

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Nullam pretium euismod urna, a placerat mi. Fusce sit amet auctor erat, vitae iaculis orci. Sed tincidunt laoreet scelerisque. Aliquam libero justo, eleifend tempus congue nec, feugiat non nibh. Aliquam at ex gravida, egestas sem eu, dignissim nisl. Pellentesque eget nisl enim. Morbi at nisi mattis, congue enim vel, rhoncus diam. Etiam in tortor nisl. Suspendisse potenti. Nullam bibendum blandit nisi, et placerat erat commodo sed. Curabitur vehicula, risus ac ornare pharetra, orci augue efficitur neque, sit amet mattis arcu tellus non quam. Suspendisse non porta nisi, et volutpat lorem. Fusce auctor mauris et finibus posuere.

Cras auctor finibus nulla. Nunc molestie sollicitudin nulla nec laoreet. Cras commodo, dui eu consequat finibus, nunc erat posuere ligula, nec pharetra sapien augue vel nunc. Suspendisse et tortor vitae nulla dapibus fermentum. Proin augue dui, tristique ut velit quis, facilisis pellentesque arcu. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Quisque semper arcu eu aliquam egestas. Proin porttitor, neque ut porta aliquet, tellus nisl euismod enim, ac blandit elit ante in elit. Donec et consequat tortor. Duis eu condimentum mauris, id aliquet lacus. Nam leo dolor, facilisis ac placerat id, congue ut sem. Nunc orci quam, cursus et facilisis vitae, luctus at enim. Quisque arcu odio, luctus ac vestibulum ut, pretium nec magna.

Suspendisse in elit orci. Mauris sodales maximus malesuada. Proin ac pretium ligula. Donec sed egestas velit. Vivamus quis accumsan ipsum. Duis vel fringilla dui. In id commodo nisl. Suspendisse mattis enim et ipsum finibus, ut consectetur mi faucibus. Nulla gravida, erat quis iaculis aliquet, ante arcu faucibus massa, non sagittis ante lectus id nisi. Sed velit magna, aliquet in ultricies id, tincidunt eget eros. Sed eu justo nec sapien scelerisque efficitur. Aliquam et ornare turpis. Mauris eget libero in eros accumsan consectetur eget vel felis. Vivamus cursus nunc eget orci scelerisque pretium id tempor justo.

Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Quisque vitae enim elementum, pulvinar ipsum a, blandit risus. Aenean urna quam, laoreet non sollicitudin eget, convallis at felis. Aenean volutpat neque dignissim lacus tincidunt aliquet. Vivamus cursus dapibus ante, a dapibus ligula luctus ac. Vivamus tincidunt interdum risus sit amet suscipit. Donec et congue eros, in tincidunt justo. Morbi eu mattis augue, nec suscipit erat. Nullam finibus risus non pharetra pharetra. Donec dapibus molestie mauris, eget luctus sapien posuere at. Donec pellentesque, felis ac lobortis tincidunt, elit mauris malesuada lectus, et facilisis velit nisl eu tortor.

Pellentesque molestie sollicitudin arcu, in mattis enim blandit vel. Nunc magna nibh, iaculis at rutrum a, tincidunt non magna. Praesent iaculis eu nisi non consectetur. Aliquam dignissim metus vitae ipsum pulvinar, eu maximus leo blandit. Nullam sed posuere justo. Cras vestibulum quam sed auctor congue. Ut euismod sapien erat, vel consequat dolor vestibulum sed. Aenean elementum, turpis vel venenatis ornare, felis nulla iaculis enim, vel consequat sapien felis lacinia neque. Praesent in laoreet urna. Vestibulum eget gravida massa. Suspendisse blandit nec justo id dignissim. Etiam feugiat vehicula congue. Vestibulum aliquam libero quam, sit amet porta purus fringilla posuere. Phasellus tincidunt nibh id mauris suscipit bibendum. Vestibulum pharetra non nulla at lobortis.

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Donec finibus turpis efficitur mattis fermentum. Vivamus purus massa, dignissim a nulla eget, venenatis sollicitudin justo. Mauris finibus congue purus a hendrerit. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Quisque nibh odio, aliquam et metus id, iaculis venenatis urna. Aenean eu imperdiet purus. Vestibulum mollis ipsum id imperdiet ultricies. Donec eget efficitur sem, in suscipit eros.

Integer vel metus cursus, volutpat libero sed, finibus erat. Nullam dignissim nulla at ligula sodales, vel feugiat tortor condimentum. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia curae; Aliquam ultrices suscipit risus nec ornare. Integer nec orci dolor. Pellentesque mattis ante sit amet ultrices cursus. Nulla tempus ipsum eu lorem suscipit, at vestibulum felis dictum.

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Morbi tristique, risus sit amet ullamcorper ullamcorper, metus massa gravida urna, nec mattis libero mi sit amet sem. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Etiam vehicula dui at maximus vulputate. In dolor tellus, varius blandit risus non, venenatis lobortis arcu. In vel metus sagittis magna molestie commodo. In diam erat, feugiat ut pulvinar elementum, varius sagittis magna. Nullam scelerisque ligula dui, eget consectetur odio rhoncus in. Suspendisse a est in tellus ullamcorper vestibulum. Donec a pretium purus, sit amet vehicula felis. Aliquam laoreet tempus orci a fermentum.

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Donec euismod convallis scelerisque. Pellentesque sagittis, urna ut pharetra ullamcorper, ex neque congue metus, vel mollis tortor tellus vel erat. Nullam aliquam semper purus ac ornare. Vestibulum felis tortor, molestie ut enim sit amet, vehicula vestibulum odio. Quisque vel volutpat turpis. Cras volutpat lobortis massa in mattis. Duis massa ligula, vehicula at dapibus ac, tincidunt ac sapien. Phasellus viverra tempor erat. Vestibulum bibendum at dui sit amet dignissim. Proin consectetur non diam vel aliquam.

Curabitur auctor leo dolor, nec ultrices mauris semper et. Phasellus sit amet eros diam. Duis tincidunt viverra arcu rutrum cursus. Maecenas pellentesque eu urna dictum posuere. Aliquam nibh libero, mattis vel mauris in, pulvinar eleifend erat. Suspendisse potenti. Donec sed dapibus justo. Nulla dictum dolor risus, et interdum metus dictum sagittis. Curabitur volutpat aliquet ex id egestas. In nisi elit, sagittis vel neque eget, tristique lacinia velit. Phasellus interdum imperdiet nunc non interdum. Nulla pellentesque aliquet mauris, a facilisis massa commodo non. Mauris vitae rutrum turpis, et sagittis eros. Nulla vitae venenatis diam, et egestas erat. Praesent tincidunt libero nibh. Proin dapibus, erat laoreet rutrum tincidunt, nulla mauris fermentum tortor, sit amet tempor arcu nulla sit amet ante.

Curabitur eget eros venenatis, posuere turpis id, varius leo. Vivamus quis odio at diam semper tincidunt non eu dui. Etiam iaculis enim quis nisi tincidunt pellentesque. Nullam congue id tortor eu sollicitudin. Nunc porta ut orci sed tempus. Aliquam ultricies sapien tincidunt sapien luctus, molestie mollis elit fringilla. Aenean in velit dolor.

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Fusce metus eros, ultricies et aliquam vitae, fermentum in massa. Suspendisse venenatis, libero a cursus convallis, velit augue porttitor diam, eu rutrum arcu urna sed ex. Sed fringilla tincidunt sodales. Praesent ultricies pretium nibh, sed consectetur nunc commodo varius. Morbi a fermentum odio, ut pharetra odio. Proin scelerisque, est a dapibus vehicula, nunc felis pulvinar libero, sit amet convallis est risus non lectus. Proin vitae auctor metus. Nam magna urna, porttitor efficitur nisi non, molestie placerat libero. Fusce ornare sodales lobortis. Vestibulum sollicitudin ac elit quis porttitor. Duis vestibulum eros ut ex fermentum, sit amet ullamcorper nisl fringilla. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Cras viverra nisi vel quam feugiat, efficitur luctus ipsum laoreet. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas.

Praesent tristique purus et arcu vulputate, ut rutrum erat facilisis. In auctor pharetra sem, sit amet malesuada lectus congue eget. Integer cursus neque est, vel malesuada metus ultrices sodales. Cras lacinia consectetur neque, id aliquam risus dignissim eget. Vivamus scelerisque leo turpis, id porta arcu consectetur vel. Maecenas a turpis at quam sodales aliquam. Integer rutrum elit porttitor interdum laoreet. Sed non rutrum nunc, non dignissim leo. Proin scelerisque mollis augue. Quisque lobortis odio eget tellus bibendum pellentesque. Cras et imperdiet sem. Pellentesque feugiat felis nec condimentum volutpat. Maecenas porttitor, dui a blandit pharetra, mauris neque gravida ligula, at sollicitudin odio dui ornare eros. Donec id nisl mauris. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia curae;

Donec mattis justo venenatis pulvinar bibendum. Phasellus at massa eu mauris commodo pharetra. Praesent tincidunt scelerisque nunc, nec ornare tortor tincidunt nec. Ut gravida, elit vel sagittis fringilla, ligula ipsum sollicitudin tellus, quis ultricies massa ipsum ac nibh. Sed nunc urna, sagittis id urna vitae, vestibulum volutpat ante. Fusce non auctor leo. Maecenas tempus justo et luctus pharetra. Mauris dignissim, turpis vestibulum ornare bibendum, arcu metus tempor tellus, et porttitor augue nulla eget libero. Donec neque quam, lobortis vitae porta volutpat, condimentum vel velit. Donec ultricies quis dolor quis elementum. Aliquam erat volutpat. Praesent varius sodales risus non vulputate. Nam accumsan non est eget congue. Aliquam in nisl sed velit blandit convallis ut ut odio.

Curabitur eget est sodales justo lacinia vulputate id nec massa

Proin et aliquet mi. Quisque nibh turpis, laoreet non sapien in, ultrices suscipit sapien. Cras sem quam, efficitur ut tempus eget, tincidunt sed ligula. Integer elit quam, suscipit nec augue a, hendrerit aliquet orci. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Vestibulum pellentesque pretium nulla, at euismod augue pharetra vel. Donec at justo tincidunt, luctus velit in, tristique elit. Duis non eros nulla. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Vivamus eget est a tortor vulputate blandit.

Etiam sed vehicula velit. Sed blandit condimentum quam, eget lobortis risus pellentesque sit amet. Pellentesque efficitur, neque at eleifend consectetur, mauris odio faucibus libero, quis finibus risus ipsum nec tortor. Nulla quam ex, mollis a rutrum a, efficitur non sapien. Nullam porta turpis ac ipsum fringilla feugiat. Vivamus ornare, tortor vitae lobortis auctor, sapien elit vestibulum mi, a viverra mi eros ac quam. Integer vehicula ullamcorper enim ut bibendum. Mauris elementum facilisis enim. Phasellus nec lacus nec ligula ultrices iaculis efficitur malesuada massa. Maecenas tempor volutpat mollis. Donec et purus vel sapien aliquet ornare ac at massa.

Maecenas congue risus vitae ex ullamcorper, ac congue lacus convallis. Sed facilisis turpis eget maximus suscipit. Etiam laoreet, dui non finibus egestas, neque elit varius neque, quis fringilla nulla risus non justo. Nulla facilisi. Praesent vulputate sem id hendrerit sodales. Mauris odio dolor, ultrices vel dolor non, gravida convallis tortor. Vivamus tincidunt libero sed finibus fringilla. Praesent consectetur nunc ac lacus semper suscipit. Phasellus neque nisl, semper sed egestas sed, condimentum sed augue.

Aliquam euismod a magna non lacinia. Aenean venenatis aliquet lectus at vestibulum. Donec convallis mi nulla, eu dictum ipsum maximus at. Pellentesque tristique consectetur est, in elementum lorem faucibus eu. Curabitur purus mauris, ornare id scelerisque eu, volutpat sed turpis. Sed leo sapien, mattis sit amet ipsum sed, sodales porttitor ipsum. Nulla pretium elit vel consectetur convallis.

Fusce ut eros id sapien rutrum pellentesque. Etiam eu sollicitudin tortor. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Praesent viverra ex ornare, interdum massa ac, porttitor massa. Aenean placerat leo turpis. Phasellus vel ipsum eu risus tincidunt pharetra. Duis sodales velit sed diam pellentesque, vitae consequat urna molestie. Etiam pellentesque odio id sapien imperdiet luctus. Vestibulum neque ipsum, scelerisque bibendum tellus vitae, dapibus varius ipsum. In at aliquam magna, fermentum porttitor mauris. Proin magna sapien, pulvinar nec risus a, congue congue nisl. In mattis dolor velit, a rutrum lectus dignissim fringilla. Phasellus in lacus ut sem varius porta.

Aenean ultrices purus id gravida rhoncus. Nam sed dui magna. Maecenas in nulla est. Nunc sit amet laoreet ligula. Phasellus non porta libero. Vivamus in dictum nulla. Sed sagittis pulvinar sagittis. Pellentesque in turpis eros. Curabitur tincidunt in ex at porttitor.

Nam auctor est eget lectus auctor, non consectetur quam consequat. Mauris placerat aliquet volutpat. Etiam et enim metus. Vivamus at turpis non orci semper porta. Aenean ipsum elit, vehicula sit amet dolor ac, tempor accumsan nunc. Mauris magna sapien, vehicula sed massa vitae, ultricies venenatis mi. Vivamus et libero diam. Praesent quis quam tellus. Sed dictum mattis arcu, et luctus ipsum maximus sit amet.

Sed posuere dolor eu lacus volutpat, non ornare neque volutpat

Nulla vitae faucibus ante. Aenean ultrices quam lobortis placerat aliquet. In in libero est. Sed consequat dignissim ipsum vel fermentum. Donec tincidunt diam ac sem laoreet lacinia. Mauris ac ex non elit porttitor sollicitudin lobortis a elit. Phasellus sed auctor tellus, vitae rutrum tellus. Phasellus ipsum metus, consectetur ac tellus a, auctor feugiat augue. Nulla tincidunt risus nibh, eget pharetra mi tincidunt nec. Etiam semper non risus a accumsan. Integer metus turpis, varius a pellentesque sed, ultrices eu leo. Mauris pretium magna nibh, varius posuere nisi finibus non. Sed posuere nisl at dui convallis tincidunt. Quisque pellentesque dolor vel lectus maximus fermentum. Suspendisse molestie urna eget fermentum tristique.

Nullam faucibus lorem a tincidunt semper. Fusce est neque, consectetur sed felis quis, hendrerit pellentesque dui. Praesent suscipit nisi quis felis laoreet ultricies. Sed pellentesque ultricies arcu, quis pretium massa posuere a. Vivamus eget ultricies nunc. Cras vel velit quis felis tincidunt tempus. Vestibulum congue nisl lacus, quis cursus neque ullamcorper ac. Praesent facilisis eu lorem eget sollicitudin.

Nullam sed accumsan ante. Sed molestie ornare elit, quis placerat erat vestibulum eleifend. Praesent mollis rhoncus iaculis. Praesent eget ullamcorper mi. Donec in massa vulputate, porta lacus blandit, viverra magna. Aenean nec nunc in purus luctus efficitur. Suspendisse sit amet sem a nisl fringilla tristique ut in quam. Mauris ac pellentesque nisi. Proin dignissim sodales quam, non venenatis sem dignissim sit amet. Quisque finibus, metus eu varius interdum, mauris justo hendrerit purus, vel pellentesque arcu diam in est. Praesent non magna lobortis dui ullamcorper tincidunt et eu risus. Aenean dolor ante, rutrum vitae dui in, fermentum porta quam. Suspendisse mattis nunc orci, ac maximus lacus commodo eu. Nulla cursus metus consectetur nulla bibendum, ut hendrerit ipsum faucibus.

Sed eros neque, feugiat iaculis blandit sit amet, fermentum et ex. Vestibulum tempus orci vel massa viverra, at tincidunt leo consectetur. Cras eu imperdiet magna, et porttitor felis. Ut malesuada rutrum nunc. Suspendisse tincidunt diam lacus, ac accumsan mauris scelerisque in. Aenean nec est sapien. Morbi varius sed massa eu mattis. Duis mattis libero mi, vitae maximus nunc suscipit sit amet.

Quisque et arcu a libero mollis consectetur in eget turpis. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. In eu erat lacus. Mauris accumsan diam in est gravida, id faucibus dolor hendrerit. Sed eu nulla vel odio maximus fermentum. Suspendisse sollicitudin egestas sapien, vel porttitor libero posuere sed. Phasellus auctor ligula at eros elementum dapibus. Suspendisse et ex a quam placerat tristique.

Vestibulum quis porta augue

Quisque tincidunt lacus malesuada ultricies ultricies. Nam elit metus, vehicula at mauris ut, tristique tempor velit. Sed laoreet finibus facilisis. In mauris erat, scelerisque id tortor at, sodales vehicula nunc. Sed erat nunc, tincidunt a luctus sit amet, laoreet non orci. Nulla leo massa, lacinia at risus in, porta auctor risus. In condimentum nisi nec mattis pharetra. Sed mattis turpis ac urna pharetra ultrices nec quis turpis. Nam et tincidunt lacus. Aliquam molestie erat nec tortor gravida egestas. Vestibulum tristique ipsum at mi faucibus facilisis. Etiam vitae condimentum sapien.

Suspendisse porttitor elementum tellus, eu auctor risus dapibus consectetur. Proin varius tortor vel dignissim accumsan. Vestibulum nec viverra quam. Integer tincidunt dictum velit, vitae mattis augue interdum ac. Nam tincidunt odio ut interdum imperdiet. Donec ultricies nibh pharetra, iaculis diam in, rutrum ante. Proin eget metus ipsum. Vivamus semper, dui at ultricies venenatis, magna libero rhoncus mauris, ut gravida mi risus ut neque.

Curabitur ullamcorper pellentesque sem, at rhoncus sem vehicula in. Aenean sit amet maximus justo. Nunc quis tincidunt quam, quis molestie tortor. Sed sed sagittis lectus. Pellentesque fringilla malesuada suscipit. Curabitur efficitur, metus eu ultrices lobortis, turpis magna malesuada dolor, ut faucibus lacus libero ac elit. Nulla vitae arcu et justo tristique suscipit. Cras placerat, dolor sed mollis malesuada, justo arcu bibendum nisi, vitae rhoncus ligula massa sed orci.

Fusce a sapien porttitor, fringilla mi suscipit, pharetra justo. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Praesent in diam a urna posuere pellentesque eget vitae justo. Pellentesque et elit non justo lobortis aliquam. Aenean fermentum justo sit amet lectus egestas, nec efficitur turpis pulvinar. Morbi a magna et dolor porta luctus quis sed urna. Aliquam placerat, risus id tincidunt porta, enim est gravida risus, vitae condimentum turpis nisi non quam. Nullam in ex in ante blandit aliquet a a orci. Sed imperdiet placerat tincidunt. Proin finibus justo et consequat laoreet. Etiam ut lorem ac ex mollis facilisis in ut lectus. Sed consectetur lorem id odio iaculis, quis sodales quam ultrices. Quisque suscipit, dolor sed ullamcorper dignissim, purus diam viverra ante, sed ullamcorper lectus metus ut odio. Duis tincidunt orci non elit elementum, eget pulvinar eros elementum.

In eget sollicitudin est. Sed sollicitudin massa vitae leo pharetra pretium. Praesent accumsan, lectus ac ullamcorper dictum, urna est bibendum erat, id cursus leo arcu id mi. Praesent tempor commodo ligula, eu auctor sem sodales non. Donec non augue erat. Duis id arcu arcu. Vivamus pulvinar elit ut nunc ultricies, ut euismod libero ullamcorper. Pellentesque cursus interdum tortor. Fusce eu efficitur felis. Nam pharetra quis libero sed dignissim. Quisque sollicitudin ultrices orci a lacinia.

In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Nam mollis tincidunt nisi, non vehicula dolor. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Suspendisse vulputate faucibus vulputate. Integer vel est sed quam gravida suscipit sit amet at nisl. Nulla a lorem quis erat pharetra posuere. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Suspendisse eget est risus. Maecenas vitae euismod velit. Donec nec ultricies odio, vel ornare tortor. Nam tristique posuere dui non mollis. Vivamus vitae venenatis libero. Cras viverra placerat libero, a tempus justo suscipit ut.

Aenean aliquam elit dui, at fringilla mauris ultricies in. Nunc consequat risus in orci commodo, ut tempor risus consequat. Nam congue felis augue, sed lacinia eros dignissim in. Aliquam aliquet, orci vitae ultricies vehicula, dolor lacus scelerisque nulla, eu tincidunt elit purus eu ante. Proin auctor nisi ut nunc imperdiet, sed mollis dui malesuada. Etiam non ante id felis varius pharetra. Integer cursus condimentum tellus, vitae dapibus dui ultricies at. Pellentesque ut ante sit amet metus interdum vehicula. Duis nec nibh bibendum neque suscipit dictum id et est.

Praesent vitae lorem rutrum, lacinia nulla eget, tristique eros. Etiam aliquam, quam nec congue fringilla, tortor felis porta metus, sed pulvinar metus velit vitae risus. Sed ornare leo vel ligula luctus interdum. Nullam nec pulvinar odio, aliquet scelerisque leo. Quisque sit amet maximus augue. Donec nec egestas diam. Duis at eros sapien. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum imperdiet pretium velit, eget tristique eros interdum eu.

Nam in lectus vitae mauris faucibus tristique eu non leo. Fusce varius, justo ut iaculis viverra, nunc magna facilisis nisi, ac dictum felis augue sed risus. Nam aliquam condimentum elit, in malesuada est. Proin ligula lectus, dignissim non ligula eu, tristique rhoncus purus. Aenean vestibulum nulla eget arcu gravida pulvinar et feugiat libero. Pellentesque cursus turpis ut facilisis interdum. Nam id lectus ac lorem volutpat mattis vel sed risus. Suspendisse consectetur orci ut risus gravida finibus. Duis pellentesque urna ac ipsum sagittis luctus. Morbi lacus ex, dictum et ipsum id, ullamcorper eleifend ex. Sed sed lectus eu risus tempus congue. Fusce ornare nisl et nulla viverra, eget tristique eros vulputate. Praesent aliquam diam sit amet nunc congue, et mattis enim interdum. Sed congue justo turpis. Sed dictum turpis id rhoncus blandit. Ut ac ultricies diam, eget posuere neque.

Suspendisse quis ante quis velit blandit mattis. Vivamus commodo felis sit amet eros tristique pellentesque. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Fusce lacinia consequat diam, non placerat ante aliquam ac. Praesent mi lorem, malesuada at malesuada vel, accumsan nec odio. Phasellus tempor, turpis sed molestie malesuada, arcu magna ultricies nibh, vestibulum mattis neque risus a metus. Duis luctus massa vitae magna sollicitudin lacinia. Quisque sem massa, lacinia vitae faucibus ut, viverra ut ex.

Praesent luctus velit nunc, in tempus augue hendrerit non. Aenean risus orci, commodo non turpis id, pretium pellentesque quam. Etiam ipsum ligula, posuere vitae pellentesque vel, posuere sagittis nibh. Suspendisse pretium euismod massa sit amet convallis. Mauris ultrices elementum nisl, eget tempus felis consectetur quis. Quisque faucibus mattis sapien, non eleifend augue dictum at. Nullam vitae sem venenatis, consequat arcu eget, viverra orci. Quisque ut eros quis magna mollis pretium eu sit amet dolor. Nullam semper quis turpis a interdum. Donec elementum velit quis metus cursus egestas. Fusce luctus leo non quam vulputate, id accumsan nibh iaculis. Curabitur diam elit, finibus vel arcu in, bibendum tincidunt justo. Suspendisse imperdiet diam vel massa scelerisque, et interdum nunc gravida. Nunc euismod turpis sodales ipsum molestie consequat eget a dolor. Curabitur commodo velit quis tortor sollicitudin mattis. Etiam lacinia laoreet lacus.

Etiam posuere mauris hendrerit urna sollicitudin scelerisque. Phasellus convallis bibendum euismod. Cras at lectus in nisl mollis euismod. Proin ut fringilla sapien. Fusce vitae ornare massa. Sed vitae dapibus diam. Vestibulum libero sem, luctus id laoreet eget, tempor ac ligula. Quisque eleifend mauris id nulla tempor cursus. In felis mauris, ultrices nec dui ut, tincidunt eleifend lorem. Etiam hendrerit eros vel nunc dictum congue. Aliquam cursus arcu in aliquam malesuada. Quisque molestie efficitur urna, aliquet posuere ipsum varius a.

Praesent tincidunt pharetra porta. Praesent eleifend nibh ac accumsan fermentum. Sed magna nulla, molestie nec dictum et, egestas ut orci. Nullam ut magna non mauris condimentum blandit. In sit amet nunc dictum, tincidunt risus nec, sollicitudin justo. Proin nec pellentesque tellus. Vestibulum tempus tempus nisl, vitae auctor nisi egestas eget. Nulla ac dignissim dolor. Proin malesuada mauris vel odio tempor, eu vestibulum tortor tempor. Vivamus sollicitudin sem et mi consequat feugiat. In fermentum id ex quis vehicula. Praesent efficitur tincidunt arcu, eget fermentum massa elementum non. Mauris quis ante eleifend, vulputate leo vitae, eleifend risus.

Maecenas sagittis, purus vitae interdum tincidunt, nisl velit rutrum dui, id vestibulum neque turpis sed mauris. Mauris nec ipsum lacinia ex auctor ullamcorper et et dui. Donec aliquet dolor vitae efficitur placerat. Phasellus vulputate, libero sit amet iaculis efficitur, dolor nibh cursus est, eu convallis justo leo eu ligula. Nullam aliquet leo nisi, ut sollicitudin mi pellentesque in. Nulla at volutpat nulla. Proin massa est, ultrices in diam ullamcorper, sollicitudin lacinia arcu. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis fringilla, urna vitae lobortis eleifend, augue risus elementum diam, vitae lacinia nibh nisi vel sem. Vivamus id congue velit. Aliquam vehicula sit amet erat sed gravida. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Aenean venenatis diam augue, eu sodales velit molestie sed. Aliquam non quam ultrices, volutpat urna vitae, bibendum lorem. Ut ut erat euismod sem hendrerit aliquam.

Quisque vel porta lectus. Praesent maximus elit commodo nibh convallis malesuada nec sit amet velit. Etiam sagittis et mi eget tempor. Cras non nibh et felis faucibus rutrum maximus sed arcu. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Nunc quam ipsum, pellentesque nec velit sed, gravida ornare ex. Integer volutpat venenatis enim, id lacinia diam accumsan a. Maecenas faucibus consectetur nunc a rhoncus. Nunc eu nulla ut nunc suscipit sagittis eleifend ac dolor. Curabitur bibendum, orci vel malesuada consequat, metus urna mollis odio, faucibus consectetur tellus nunc eget eros.

Aliquam erat volutpat. Nunc a commodo arcu. Integer quis elit magna. Praesent eu finibus lacus, ac posuere nibh. Phasellus non quam sollicitudin, fringilla ex nec, sollicitudin nunc. Quisque erat libero, imperdiet nec hendrerit quis, feugiat vitae mi. Mauris quis pharetra sapien. Suspendisse vel turpis in ipsum facilisis porttitor. Aliquam vitae rhoncus nisl. Duis nec ante aliquam, vehicula massa non, pellentesque dui. Proin efficitur, quam id convallis aliquet, orci urna fringilla risus, ac tincidunt dui dui in velit. Nullam ut fermentum sem. Curabitur pulvinar felis in euismod malesuada. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Maecenas vitae orci gravida, consectetur dui et, imperdiet orci. Cras nec turpis at urna accumsan imperdiet.

Praesent iaculis neque sit amet purus accumsan aliquet

Aliquam eu lacus rutrum, pretium elit sit amet, congue nulla. Aliquam fermentum mattis posuere. Curabitur viverra semper augue eu aliquet. Praesent accumsan metus nec sem tincidunt, et finibus massa mollis. Quisque cursus velit id interdum pellentesque. Ut eleifend auctor volutpat. Duis aliquam tellus quis dolor tristique vestibulum. Donec blandit hendrerit felis, vel dictum nulla hendrerit eget. Vivamus nec lobortis urna. Curabitur sed euismod nisi. Curabitur a nibh orci.

Vestibulum dui risus, imperdiet vitae eros ut, efficitur tincidunt odio. Aliquam erat volutpat. Nullam condimentum diam ut ligula interdum finibus. Morbi non fermentum neque. Etiam cursus urna mi, iaculis tempor lorem viverra in. Cras luctus tellus et felis feugiat, at scelerisque lacus dapibus. Proin vehicula mauris a sapien finibus, accumsan ultrices libero laoreet. Sed vulputate libero tortor. Quisque lobortis consequat est, vel facilisis elit sodales non.

Quisque vehicula vehicula turpis, at feugiat tortor vehicula vitae. Nullam interdum rutrum turpis, vel mattis neque ullamcorper ac. Morbi sollicitudin consequat accumsan. Donec a ultrices mauris. Pellentesque pulvinar lorem at ligula euismod, quis accumsan nibh rhoncus. Aliquam accumsan ornare maximus. Fusce eu enim in odio iaculis mattis. In eu tortor ut magna tincidunt congue sit amet nec tellus. Donec odio turpis, pretium et sagittis quis, viverra id nisl. Ut porttitor sem a risus consectetur accumsan. In in interdum ipsum, consectetur semper nulla. In lacinia, lacus vitae dignissim fermentum, libero quam cursus tortor, egestas rhoncus mauris turpis ac metus. Donec maximus sodales elit eget lacinia. Morbi volutpat leo nec justo rutrum, non pulvinar dui malesuada.

Nam consectetur sapien eget dapibus dictum. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Duis posuere ac dolor sodales suscipit. Mauris dictum ipsum lorem, quis vestibulum quam condimentum tincidunt. Donec sodales mi sapien, sit amet pretium dolor sodales nec. Nulla tempor enim in justo ultrices, ut tempor ex varius. Sed at lacus dolor. Etiam maximus tincidunt neque, eget placerat ante porta vitae.

Proin dolor erat, dictum vitae justo pretium, venenatis iaculis lectus. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Quisque a augue vel neque consequat accumsan vel ut est. Donec efficitur mattis semper. Phasellus eu nisi dolor. Sed rutrum at sem et lacinia. Donec at molestie sapien. Sed a dictum ante. Mauris id placerat ante. Cras ornare suscipit sagittis. Vestibulum finibus, justo vitae mollis pulvinar, tellus nulla gravida urna, eget viverra metus urna sit amet lectus. Sed gravida vulputate turpis, ut fringilla metus tempus aliquam. Integer commodo, lectus a luctus dignissim, augue nunc suscipit leo, nec ultrices lectus ipsum non sem.

Integer volutpat commodo nunc. Nunc mattis vel sem et posuere. Duis eros nulla, condimentum eget lacus at, commodo sagittis arcu. Curabitur cursus, libero nec lobortis aliquet, diam dolor malesuada orci, non imperdiet lectus ante a nisl. Nulla hendrerit sem in sapien pellentesque vulputate. Vivamus sit amet urna ut nibh aliquet pharetra sed eu tortor. Aliquam sollicitudin ante vitae erat pulvinar tristique. Nam non porta diam. Etiam quis arcu sit amet ex venenatis luctus a a leo. Nullam at sem suscipit diam lobortis porta sit amet non enim. Nulla sed.


↓ References listed below, using <references /> tag

  1. Aliquam ullamcorper vel nisi vitae posuere ← Footnote content
  2. Curabitur commodo eros eu est sollicitudin cursus

Works cited

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Bhutta, Neil, Aurel Hizmo, and Daniel Ringo. “How Much Does Racial Bias Affect Mortgage Lending? Evidence from Human and Algorithmic Credit Decisions,” Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2022-067. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2022.

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Winston, Brian. “Surveillance in the Service of Narrative”.  A Companion to Contemporary Documentary Film, edited by Alexandra Juhasz and Alisa Lebow. John Wiley & Sons, 2015, pp.  611-628.

Womack, Autumn. The Matter of Black Living: the Aesthetic Experiment of Racial Data, 1880-1930.  The University of Chicago Press, 2022.

Završnik, Aleš. “Algorithmic Justice: Algorithms and Big Data in Criminal Justice Settings.” European journal of criminology, vol 18, no. 5, 2021, pp. 623–642.

↑ Example article with the class "item"



Camille Crichlow is a PhD Researcher at the Sarah Parker Remond Centre for the Study of Racism and Racialisation (University College London). Her research interrogates how the historical and socio-cultural narrative of race manifests in contemporary algorithmic technologies.

Teodora Sinziana Fartan is a researcher, computational artist and writer based in London, UK. Her research-artistic practice explores the new spaces of possibility opened up by collaborations between software and storytelling, with a particular focus on the new modes of relational and affective experience rendered into being by the networked data exchanges scripted into interfaces. Driven by speculative fiction, Teodora’s practice explores the immersive, interactive and intelligent more-than-human entanglements that can take shape within algorithmically-mediated spaces. Teodora is currently a PhD Researcher at the Centre for the Study of the Networked Image at London South Bank University and a Lecturer at the University of the Arts London.

Susanne Förster is a PhD candidate and research associate in the project “Agentic Media: Formations of Semi-Autonomy” at the University of Siegen. Her work deals with imaginaries and infrastructures of conversational artificial agents. Previously, she coordinated exhibitions at Haus der Kulturen der Welt (HKW), Berlin.

Inte Gloerich (PhD researcher at Utrecht University and Institute of Network Cultures) explores sociotechnical imaginaries around blockchain technology. Her work involves the politics, artistic imagination, and (counter)cultures surrounding digital technology. She co-edited MoneyLab Reader 2: Overcoming the Hype, State Machines: Reflections and Actions at the Edge of Digital Citizenship, and Feminist Finance Zine & Syllabus.

Mara Karagianni is an artist, software developer and system administrator. Their work involves computational and analogue media for publishing, python programming, making technical user manuals & drawings, and writing about the internet, FOSS and feminism.

Freja Kir is researching across intersections of artistic methods, spatial publishing and digital media environments. Creatively directing fanfare – collective for visual communication. Contributing to stanza – studio for critical publishing. PhD researcher, University of West London.

Jung-Ah Kim is a PhD researcher in Screen Cultures and Curatorial Studies at Queen’s University. She explores various aspects of traditional Korean textiles, including their technology, production, cultural heritage, diaspora, and more.

Inga Luchs is a PhD candidate in Media Studies at the University of Groningen. Inga has obtained her B.A. and M.A. in cultural studies and digital culture at Leuphana University, Lüneburg. Departing from the problem of algorithmic discrimination, she seeks to investigate the key technical principles of machine learning to uncover underlying assumptions and beliefs. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2731-0549

Alasdair Milne is a PhD researcher with Serpentine Galleries’ Creative AI Lab and King’s College London. His work focuses on the collaborative systems that emerge around new technologies.

Shusha Niederberger is a PhD student at Zurich University of the Arts / Hamburg University of Fine Arts and working on user subject positions in datafied environments (https://latentspaces.zhdk.ch). She has a background in media art practice and art education, and has been researching on digital artistic practices and the commons (http://creatingcommons.zhdk.ch) before.

nate wessalowski is a PhD student and technofeminist researcher at the University of Münster working on alternative data practices in collaboration with feminist server collectives. Based on a background in cultural studies and digital cultures (Universities of Hildesheim and Lüneburg), their work focuses on the epistemologies of datafication, the history and futures of online commons and, most recently, a feminist critique of cybersecurity.

Jack Wilson is a PhD researcher at the University of Warwick’s Centre for Interdisciplinary Methodologies. He is not a conspiracy theorist.

xenodata co-operative investigates image politics, algorithmic culture and technological conditions of knowledge production and governance through art and media practices. The collective was established by curator Yasemin Keskintepe and artist-researcher Sasha Anikina. Together with Luba Elliott, they co-curated the IMPAKT festival 2018 entitled "Algorithmic Superstructures". Alexandra (Sasha) Anikina is a media scholar, artist and film-maker, currently a Senior Lecturer in Media Practices at Winchester School of Art (University of Southampton). Yasemin Keskintepe has curated exhibitions on the politics and poetics of technology at ZKM and German Hygiene-Museum among others, and is currently a PhD candidate at the University of Potsdam.

Sandy Di Yu is a PhD researcher at the University of Sussex and co-managing editor of DiSCo Journal (www.discojournal.com), using digital artist critique to examine shifting experiences of time.

↑ Contributors for this particular issue with the id "contributors"